What Is Bitumen?

A black viscous mixture of hydrocarbons obtained naturally or as a residue from petroleum distillation. It is used for road surfacing and roofing.
Bitumen is an oil based substance. It is a semi-solid hydrocarbon product produced by removing the lighter fractions (such as liquid petroleum gas, petrol and diesel) from heavy crude oil during the refining process. Also, it is known as refined bitumen
Bitumen is a mixture of Organic Liquids that are highly Viscous, Black, Sticky, Entirely Soluble in Carbon Disulfide, and composed primarily of highly condensed Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

Bitumen Production process:
Compressed air is blown into vacuum bottom residue, typically at 230–260 °C in a reactor to produce different grades of bitumen. This process results in complex reactions such as Dehydrogenation, Polymerization and Oxidation. Different grades for suited applications will be produce due to ratio of air blowing.

Bitumen Applications:
Road: 90 percent of the bitumen is used in the construction and maintenance of roads.

Roofing: 10 percent of the bitumen is used in the roofing and other cases (canals and tunnels, pipe coating etc.).

Bitumen Types:
1. Natural Bitumen-This bitumen is extracted from mines, which are used in many industries, including road construction, the paint industry, coating and insulation of tanks and tubes and molding. 

2. Petroleum Bitumen-Black or brown mixture of hydrocarbons derived from petroleum, produced by air blowing process to vacuum bottom (crude oil derivatives) , it varies from liquid to solid in regular temperature.

3. Coal Tar-Coal tar is a black or dark-brown a residue produced by the heat treatment of coal. It is a solid at room temperature.